Hariprasad Gali, Ph.D.
Renography is a diagnostic imaging procedure that allows a physician to visualize kidneys and evaluate their function. It is conducted by dynamic planar imaging using technetium-99m-based renal agents. Drawbacks of planar (2D) imaging include providing limited structural details, low-quality images, and poor quantitative data. Employing tomographic (3D) imaging techniques such a SPECT and PET for renography would overcome those drawbacks associated with planar imaging and thus enhance its clinical value. While SPECT is superior to planar imaging, it still suffers from poor spatial, contrast, and temporal resolutions compared to PET. In addition, conducting a clinical dynamic SPECT study is technically challenging because clinical SPECT cameras depend on rotational movement (step-and-shoot) of detector heads. In combination with poor counting statistics, the step-and-shoot technology is not suitable for rapid kinetics of renal agents. PET overcomes all of these technical challenges. In addition, diagnostic value of PET could be further enhanced when its functional information is fused with anatomic information provided by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
In this regard, we have reported three new renal agents, para-18F-fluorohippurate (18F-PFH), ortho-124I-iodohippurate (124I-OIH), and 68Ga-NODAGA-glycine, specifically designed for PET renography. 18F-PFH and 124I-OIH are renal tubular secretion agents, whereas 68Ga-NODAGA-glycine is a glomerular filtration agent. 18F-PFH is the first PET renal tubular agent to be reported in the literature. Higher clearance of renal tubular agents compared to glomerular filtration agents enables them to provide better quality images. Thus, they are preferred radiopharmaceuticals for renography, especially in patients with the renal dysfunction. Our preliminary radiation dosimetry estimates indicate that 18F-PFH, 124I-OIH, and 68Ga-NODAGA-glycine would deliver substantially lower radiation doses to the patients compared to their technetium-99m counterparts. We have also demonstrated a potential application of 18F-PFH PET renography for an early prediction of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) progression in a rat model of slowly progressive autosomal dominant PKD. Currently, there is a lack of a sensitive biomarker or technique that can predict ADPKD progression, before extensive, irreversible damage has occurred.
My research is focused on developing new positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiopharmaceuticals for molecular and functional imaging applications. A leading project in my lab involves the development of new renal agents suitable for conducting PET renography.
Publications & Presentations
- 1. Awasthi V, Gali H, Hedrick A, Da H, Eeda V, Jain D. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with 18F-FGA for Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction in a Coronary Artery Ligation Model. Molecular Imaging. 2022; 2022
2. Gali H. Development of radiopharmaceuticals for PET renography. Journal of Chemical Sciences. 2021; 133 : 80
3. Yarla N S, Pathuri G, Gali H, Terzyan S, Panneerselvam J, Chandrakesan P, Scotti M T, Houchen C, Madka V, Rao C V. Discovery and Development of a Novel mPGES-1/5-LOX Dual Inhibitor LFA-9 for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. Journal of inflammation research. 2020; 13 : 1261-1278
4. Houson H, Mdzinarishvili A, Gali H, Sidorov E, Awasthi V. PET Detection of Cerebral Necrosis Using an Infarct-Avid Agent 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]Fluoro-D-Glucaric Acid (FGA) in a Mouse Model of the Brain Stroke. Molecular imaging and biology. 2020; 22 : 1353-1361
5. Yari H, Gali H, Awasthi V. Nanoparticles for Targeting of Prostate Cancer. Current pharmaceutical design. 2020; 26 : 5393-5413
- 1. Exosomes as carriers of cancer therapeutics. NIH. Start Date: 2021. End Date: 2026.
2. PET Imaging Agent For Myocardial Infarction. NIH. Start Date: 2019. End Date: 2019.
3. Fee-for-service custom synthesis. Non-federal. Start Date: 2018. End Date: 2019.
4. Development of Tumor Proliferation PET Tracer FLT using a Low Cost Single Dose Automatic Production and Quality Control Biomarker Generator System. NIH. Start Date: 2016. End Date: 2017.
Awards and Honors
- 1. Degree: Ph D. University of Missouri. Date: 1999.
2. Degree: MS. University of Hyderabad. Date: 1995.
3. Degree: BS. Osmania University. Date: 1993.